Catlab Reports Bulletin
The Catlab Reports Bulletin is published monthly. Until the publication of the Catlab website, it was mailed electronically to our clients. It consists of a monograph related with laboratory topics. Each month it addresses a different area of Catlab; the topics can be more specific (concrete diagnostic techniques) or deal with more generic aspects (Quality, Management, …).
MICROBIOLOGY - Urinary tract infection. New circuit in Catlab
Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of UTI is based on three factors: the patient's symptoms, examination of the formed elements of urine and urine culture. To optimize the microbiological diagnosis of UTI, a retrospective study of all urine cultures obtained by spontaneous urination was performed to set breakpoints that would allow rule planting negative urine cultures and no significant bacteriuria with sensitivity ≥ 95%. From the results, it is proposed to make a screening urine culture, which exclude the cultivation of all urine samples obtained by spontaneous urination, which leucocyte esterase or nitrites are not detected.
QUALITY - Accreditation of clinical laboratories according to ISO 15189
UNE-EN ISO 15189: 2013 is an international standard that specifies requirements for the competence and quality of clinical laboratories. In particular, it recognizes the technical competence of the laboratory analysis of specific magnitudes. Applying strict quality requirements demanded by ISO 15189 accreditation affects all processes in the laboratory (preanalytical, analytical and postanalíticos) and has been a major effort, both by the entity as of our professionals.
HORMONES - Progesterone. New reference values.
Currently, in Catlab, measurement of serum progesterone is performed on the Cobas 602 8000_e Roche Diagnostic (Elecsys), by a chemoluminescence immunoassay method (ECLIA). In order to improve the quality of the results obtained in our laboratory, we will proceed to replace the current reagent by a new reagent which have been changed its rat monoclonal antibodies into sheep monoclonal antibodies with greater specificity.
IMMUNOLOGY - Review of Prenatal Screening in Catlab
Since September 2015, the first-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome, is done with a new method and a new calculation program. A comparative between the previous program Lifecycle Perkin Elmer and the new Ssdwlab6 Roche was made satisfactorily. And minimum requirements for imprecision and inaccuracy for biochemical markers were established with the new method of electrochemiluminescence with optimum results.
Biochemistry - CKD-EPI
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is generally defined as a set of heterogeneous diseases that affect renal structure and function. Since 2002, it published a set of guidelines on the evaluation, classification, and stratification of the ERC. Staging classification for risk, they have used different calculations and equations. The currently recommended by the new guidelines is the equation CKD-EPI creatinine.
HEMATOLOGY - Haemoglobinopathies studies
Review of the various alterations of hemoglobin and the different methods used to detect them in Catlab. Structural haemoglobinopathies are classified by the disturbance affecting the solubility, stability, affinity for oxygen or maintenance of the reduced iron. The thalassemias are classified according to the globin chain stops synthesized, and we also have the thalassemic haemoglobinopathies, which are mutations in the globin genes that cause structural problems.
IMMUNOLOGY - Fecal calprotectin as a marker of inflammatory bowel disease
The clinical suspicion of organic bowel disease motivates a diagnostic colonoscopy that generates a high rate of false positives, because the markers are not very specific. Next january, in Catlab, we will do Fecal Calprotectin (FCP), a protein found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and in the membrane of activated monocytes and macrophages. The FCP is reliable in discriminating patients likely to suffer inflammatory bowel disease, and to detect endoscopic inflammatory activity. It is also useful to monitor response to treatment and predict the risk of recurrence.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - Massive sequencing for antiretroviral resistance HIV-1
From February 2016, the massive sequencing will be used for the test of resistance to HIV-1 antiretroviral in Catlab. This method has several advantages; the resistances of the three regions (Pro, RT, INT) are determined in one integrated test; it automatically determines the subtype of HIV-1, and finally, the new test allows the detection of mutations in viral quasispecies that only represent 1% of the viral population, compared to 20% of the current test.
MICROBIOLOGY- Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a public health problem that affects a significant number of the population. It is essential to do a reliable and early diagnosis to avoid infection, its spread and possible complications.
MICROBIOLOGY - Pick-up samples for the study of skin infections and soft tissue
This group of infections is broad and complex. Ranging from skin infections, skin appendages, subcutaneous tissue, fascia and skeletal muscle. They are very common infections of varying severity and can evolve acutely or chronically.
The collection of good quality samples for microbiological analysis, is critical in this process which will determine the microbiological diagnosis.